The culture of an institution – also known as the spirit of a business – is created through the interactions of norms, values and the way of thinking of managers and employees in an organisation. The culture of an institution can be seen in the behavioural patterns of employees on all levels of the institution and defines the way it appears to the outside world. Values such as performance, effectiveness, professionalism and responsibility determine how a culture is created and what its defining elements are. Culture is developed through the application of the principles of effective management.

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